Se habla de las actividades culturales (la música, el teatro, los museos, los festivales…) y otras acciones para la “regeneración del tejido social.” Es la frase de moda. La moneda de cambio. La nueva medicina para curar los males del país. Bien, pero vamos por partes. Comencemos por tratar de definir el termino (que a pesar de tener un timbre tan carismático tiende a ser vago y ambiguo). ¿Que es el tejido social?
El tejido social es la suma de todas las partes y acciones que conforman una comunidad o sociedad que tenga objetivos comunes. Me viene a la mente la interdependencia entre los miembros de una familia, los actores que conforman una escuela, los herederos de una etnia indígena, los integrantes de una asociación civil o partido político, las clicas y las pandillas. Todos ellos forman una comunidad—un grupo con valores e ideales (para bien o para mal) que los guían y motivan. Existen dentro del núcleo de esos grupos fluidez por el intercambio de información y experiencias, mismas que les permiten entrelazar la estirpe de sus propias historias. (Los antropólogos Lave y Wenger han aludido a esto al debatir sobre su teoría de la comunidad de práctica.)
En México el discurso de regenerar el tejido o cohesión social se adhiere continuamente al tema de la violencia e inseguridad. Se habla de como comunidades se han fracturado y de la urgencia de llenar ese vacío con actividades productivas. ¿Que es lo que se esta haciendo en el ámbito cultural? Veamos un ejemplo: “Más que iniciar nuevos proyectos, queremos, a través de muchas convocatorias, recoger las inquietudes de la población y convertirlas en acciones culturales. Lo que estamos haciendo es amplificar la actividad cultural como un elemento absolutamente fundamental para reconstruir la cohesión social de muchas de estas poblaciones que desafortunadamente se han visto afectadas estos últimos tiempos.”
El presidente del CONACULTA aquí citado se refiere al estado de Michoacán, una región que continuamente lucha por su supervivencia y Estado de derecho. Derivado de esa convocatoria se organizarán festivales, ponencias magistrales, ferias de libros, etc. Pero el tema político es sumamente complejo y las acciones y/o recursos que se otorgarán ahí por más bien encaminados o distribuidos nunca serán suficientes. El problema es muy grave. Pero aun quiero pensar que no es imposible de resolver (todavía me quedan algunas gotas de idealismo).
Pero creo que el enfoque general debe ser distinto. Debemos hablar de generar tejido y cohesión social. No de regenerar, esto nos limita mucho. Decía Winston Churchill que el político se convierte en estadista cuando comienza a pensar en las próximas generaciones y no en las próximas elecciones. Los problemas que aquejan al país merecen más que intervenciones relámpago. Necesitamos políticas visionarias de largo alcance que se construyan ladrillo por ladrillo. Hombro con hombro. Y no hay mejor lugar para tejerlas que la escuela.
La escuela es el común denominador de los mexicanos, todos pasan por ahí (es lo que dicta la ley). Todos aprenden de ella. Quien no recuerda las quermeses, las celebraciones del día de muertos, los bailables, las coronaciones, la estudiantina. Todo esto tiene algo en común—la convivencia. La cultura participativa es un mecanismo de fraternidad y empatía. Ese es el gran proyecto que México debe emprender y cultivar—el de la concertación.
Dice el economista y músico venezolano José Antonio Abreu que la practica musical es un modelo idóneo para alcanzar ese objetivo. “La orquesta (y porque no, el equipo de béisbol también diría yo) es la única comunidad que tiene por característica y esencia exclusiva…el concertarse entre si.” ¿Que significa la concertación? “La practica en equipo, el grupo que se reconoce como interdependiente, donde cada uno es responsable por los demás y los demás son responsables por uno.” Creo que si todos pensáramos así, estaríamos más cerca de ser un país más justo.
Hay un gran experimento que se esta llevando a cabo en Nuevo León. La Alianza Educativa Ciudadana en esa entidad es un grupo de empresarios que aspiran al bien común y que animan a las comunidades escolares a ser autosuficientes, a concertarse, a apoyarse mutuamente. Cuando llegue a visitar una de las escuelas beneficiadas a las afueras de Monterrey me encontré con alumnos, padres de familia, y maestros que juntos pintaban su escuela, hacían el inventario de útiles, cortaban las ramas marchitas del patio. Todo un engranaje de cohesión y generación de tejido social.
Ahí esta el proyecto musical de las orquestas y bandas comunitarias del Sistema Nacional Fomento Musical. La iniciativa de Esperanza Azteca, los ensambles independientes que tocan serenatas los fines de semana. Las orquestas de la Gran Familia que se quedaron en la intemperie. Los equipos de futbol llanero, los niños trikis, las asociaciones civiles, las doñitas que hacen tamales en las cooperativas. Los sueños compartidos son vitales para construir armonía.
Hagamos de la “regeneración del tejido social,” mucho mas que una moda o frase que suene bien en la televisión. Podemos construir, tejer, y animar. Eso si, sin perder de vista que todos estamos llamados a poner nuestro granito de arena. En ese tenor y aunado a la circunstancia actual, los músicos (además de los maestros, los trabajadores, las amas de casa…) de México tenemos un compromiso histórico con la edificación de oportunidades para un mejor país. Y termino con una nota de esperanza parafraseando a Gandhi y a Bernstein diciendo que todo lo que hagamos pudiera parecer insignificante pero es sumamente importante que lo pongamos en marcha con más pasión y más devotamente que nunca.
En mi reciente blog hable de cómo la música puede combatir la pobreza e hice la observación de considerarla como parte de un proceso amplio de educación y desarrollo humano. Uno pudiera argumentar que en México el problema endémico de la pobreza es derivado de la falta de oportunidades en la educación, pero ahora me permito explorar como factores externos pueden llegar a truncar los procesos y efectividad del aprendizaje mismo que señalice hacia el cambio de social. ¿Puede ser la música un factor para solventar este círculo vicioso?
El educador y científico social Eric Jensen ha identificado cinco elementos que disminuyen sistemáticamente el desempeño académico de estudiantes en edad escolar. Estos son: la desnutrición, estrés crónico, vocabulario deficiente, esfuerzo reducido, y la exclusión social. Naturalmente atacar todos elementos en conjunto amerita de una intervención integral de políticas públicas en educación, salud, desarrollo social, entre otras áreas. Por ende todo esto requiere de una serie de apoyos, sistemas, y ambientes adecuados para crear nuevos espacios de alcance e impacto entre la población estudiantil. Aunado a esto propongo la música como factor de oportunidades, cambio y atenuante de contextos.
Al hablar de contextos no podemos pasar de alto las grandes dificultades que vive México en materia de violencia e inseguridad (la razón por ello amerita su propio análisis fuera de este texto). ¿Cuales serán las consecuencias del estrés crónico que le producen a estudiantes de zonas urbanas, en donde casi diario les asechan persecuciones, enfrentamientos, y balaceras cerca de sus casas, escuelas, e iglesias? (vea usted una muestra de lo a que me refiero, esto en Tepatitlán de Morelos: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KpiwEvja_G8/)
Según las recientes investigaciones del Harvard Center for the Developing Child, los contextos de estrés toxico disminuyen notablemente las habilidades neurológicas para desarrollar importantes funciones ejecutivas (las mismas que regulan la memoria, la flexibilidad mental, y el autocontrol). Se ha comprobado que las deficiencias de estas funciones afectan el desempeño académico, el comportamiento, y la salud en general. Esto tiene implicaciones sumamente desastrosas para el futuro del país (estimados funcionarios públicos y legisladores tomen nota). El ejercicio coordinado, afectivo, y disciplinado de la música (aunado a otras intervenciones) puede mitigar ese tren degenerativo de una manera natural y provechosa. Consideren este testimonio de una niña que practica el violín en un programa social de orquesta infantil en Venezuela:
“Era el primer día de la orquesta de cámara, entonces yo venia temprano. Y casi al llegar aquí me dieron un disparo en la pierna. Y yo lloraba, no por el dolor, si no por que iba perder el ensayo. Cuando uno llega aquí se le olvida todo.”
La niña dice que se le olvida todo…
En términos científicos lo que aquí ha ocurrido es que el ejercicio de la música, el entorno en donde la desarrolla, y la motivación intrínseca que le brinda; le ayuda a mitigar el contexto adverso en el que vive. Recientes investigaciones sobre la materia nos indican que este tipo de actividad puede cortocircuitar la respuesta al estrés y mantenerlo fuera del margen crónico o de peligro. Según los especialistas el estrés comienza en el cerebro y emite una reacción cadena que alerta al cuerpo a nivel celular. Con el paso del tiempo estos interruptores se quedan en posición de encendido permanente…la práctica músical crea una reacción a la inversa (WebMd). Al proteger a los estudiantes de estas condiciones adversas se mejora el desarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas antes aquí mencionadas. No hacerlo desencadena en parte comportamientos erráticos e impulsivos que nos generan más violencia entre otros males. Esto a la larga crea costos muy elevados.
Me preocupa como se ha visto afectada la impartición de la educación en México. Me duele ver los videos en YouTube en donde estudiantes son sometidos al terror de las batallas urbanas. Las nuevas generaciones están ahí clamando porque venga algún cambio, alguna oportunidad que los libere de todo eso. Ellos crecen atemorizados por la incertidumbre de que a la vuelta de la esquina les llueva una bala o peor aun que crezcan sin las herramientas que los hagan salir adelante. Habrá que reflexionar sobre todo esto.
Kuchinskas, Susan. “How Music Making Reduces Stress” WebMd, 2010. (Reviewed by Patricia Farrell) http://www.webmd.com/balance/stress-management/features/how-making-music-reduces-stress
“InBrief: Executive Function: Skills for Life and Learning” Harvard Center for the Developing Child, 2013. http://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/briefs/inbrief_series/inbrief_executive_function/
En México ya es común encontrarnos con algún articulo, tweet, o discurso alusivo al movimiento de las orquestas y bandas juveniles en donde se haga hincapié en la música como herramienta para “combatir la pobreza,” “regenerar el tejido social,” o “disminuir la violencia.” En la mayor parte de los casos muchas de estas hipótesis, al carecer de sustento, se quedan atoradas en un discurso fantástico (por no decir político) y a veces ilógico. Es por ello que considero pertinente hacer un llamado para ir más allá de las pinceladas mediáticas y animar un debate serio en torno a la educación musical como una verdadera disciplina capaz de mediar, transformar, y construir mejores ciudadanos.
Yo si creo que la educación musical puede animar el desarrollo humano de jóvenes en edad de formación. Pero todos los que abogamos por ella debemos ser cuidadosos al elaborar el discurso (y las estrategias pedagógicas) que sustente la premisa. También debemos ser conscientes de que la música debe ser vista como una herramienta para facilitar nuevos procesos que señalicen al cambio social. Howard Gardner nos brinda la explicación más lucida al respecto—el ejercicio de la música es una invitación para descubrir una pasión interior hacia el aprendizaje. Entonces cuando un joven se da cuenta de que sus esfuerzos se traducen a logros concretos y estos crecen con la disciplina del tiempo, se gesta así, un vocabulario de aprendizaje que puede ser transferido a múltiples dominios de acción mas allá de la practica musical (Scripp et al 2014). A medida de que el alumno adquiere esas herramientas su desarrollo cognitivo y motivación intrínseca (vea usted este niño que ama tanto su violoncello que duerme con el—http://youtu.be/oIGUXapsI-I?t=39m11s) lo hace mas propenso a alcanzar el éxito profesional. Mucho me llama la atención ese proceso de cambio. La educadora Maxine Greene se refería a esto como el fenómeno de wide-awakeness. José Antonio Abreu lo plasma en su idea de ser y no ser todavía. En otras palabras, el ejercicio de la música invita al alumno a descubrir su humanidad como realidad permanentemente inacabada y esto puede ser vital para su desarrollo pleno.
Me pregunto una vez más, ¿Puede la música combatir la pobreza?
Si lo creo. Pero para no pecar de ingenuos habrá que pensar la música como parte de un proceso de educación más amplio. Un ciudadano que tenga la capacidad de aprender, pensar y mejorarse continuamente será más completo y luchará por alcanzar sus objetivos desde cualquier posición o estrato social. La investigación contemporánea en torno al ejercicio de la educación estética nos indica que los estudiantes que estudian música son cuatro veces más propensos a ser reconocidos por su desempeño académico. Los estudiantes que se dedican a perfeccionar un instrumento musical ganan terreno a sus pares en perseverancia. También desarrollan su capacidad de retener información en todas las disciplinas académicas. Se disminuye la deserción escolar. Los niños también cultivan sus habilidades de razonamiento abstracto que los lleva a aplicar conocimientos y visualizar soluciones. Es así como la música puede generar un cambio social de raíz. Porque ayuda a desarrollar capacidades cognitivas de una manera mucho más sofisticada (me atrevo a decir) que las matemáticas o las lenguas. Y además por su carácter de actividad comunitaria y afectiva (dentro de los coros, estudiantinas, bandas, etc.) puede ser también factor de cambio del perfil sociológico de sus integrantes.
Dice Guillermo Sheridan en el blog de Letras Libres que en México “se enseña poca música en las escuelas y no hay mejor escuela imaginable.” Yo creo que el Estado debe considerar elevar esta disciplina a un lugar de mayor importancia dentro del currículo académico. Al tenor de esa visión, las organizaciones civiles pueden ser participes del proceso gestionando recursos, ideas, y oportunidades. Esto nos puede llevar a desarrollar capital humano y ganar productividad para el bien de todos. Cabe destacar que entre los países que obtienen las más altas calificaciones en matemáticas y ciencias (Japón, Hungría, Holanda, entre otros con alto índice de desarrollo económico) es obligatoria la educación musical. Los jóvenes mexicanos que menos tienen merecen triunfar y ser ejemplo de superación. Hay que hacer el esfuerzo por darles nuevas herramientas para que puedan salir victoriosos del círculo vicioso de la pobreza. Y para vencer ese mal pudiéramos voltear a ver más de cerca la música. Vale la pena el experimento.
Gardner, Scripp, et al. “El Sistema: Music Lessons to Rebuild the World” Open Source with Christopher Lydon, 2014. http://www.prx.org/pieces/114241-el-sistema-music-lessons-to-rebuild-the-world
"Re-Investing in Arts Education: Winning America’s Future Through Creative Schools." The President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 2011. http://www.pcah.gov/resources/re-investing-arts-educationwinning-americas-future-through-creative-schools
"Lessons from PISA for the United States, Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education.” OECD Publishing, 2011. http://www.oecd.org/pisa/46623978.pdf
“Music Matters: How Music Education Helps Student Learn, Achieve, and Succeed.” Arts Education Partnership, 2011. http://www.aep-arts.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Music-Matters-Final.pdf
"Prediction: Identifying potential dropouts." The Center for Public Education, 2007. http://www.centerforpubliceducation.org/Main-Menu/Staffingstudents/Keeping-kids-in-school-At-a-glance/Keeping-kids-in-school-Preventing-dropouts.html.
*En México, 53.8% de los niños y jóvenes de cero a 17 años de edad son pobres, mientras que tres de cada 10 pasan “hambre.” CONEVAL, UNICEF 2012
Have you ever observed how very young children respond to music – with rhythmic movement, with sounds, with all sorts of other movements? Do you remember how you felt as a child, when you wanted to make music? Do you ever feel something akin to ecstasy when you hear a piece of a performance you really love? Is the sense of ecstasy only a thought or is it a feeling also in your body? Where in yourself do you feel it? Do you feel the rhythm? Can you feel that sometimes music makes you feel light and sometimes heavy, sometimes it is a swaying feeling and sometimes you want to jump? Sometimes tall and wide when the sound fills up the universe and sometimes all stops and there is just a minimal movement, like very quiet waters?
Do you realize that all these states have to do with your body, with different muscular states and a different organization of the skeleton? That your muscles feel different when you feel speed, and different when you feel swaying? What would you think if I told you that the feeling in your body of a particular phrase will create just the right muscle tone needed to play the phrase – not more and not less? Would you consider the thought that ignoring the physical feeling of music might contribute to injury and frustration?
Why do many of us lose that embodied feeling of music we had when we were children? Is it possible to keep the ecstasy of music alive through the whole process of acquiring the techniques to express it? And not only to keep it alive, but use it to find the right movements to express it? I constantly hear from students, after our lesson, variations on this phrase: “Wow, I remember now why I wanted to do it in the first place. I forgot!” The spontaneity and unity of hearing, doing and listening, is suddenly available again and the music is a pleasure to make, even when it needs improvement. Quiet, simple breathing resumes and the sense of the body’s weight returns. It is a moment of relief even to very accomplished players.
When one remembers this natural feeing of music and realizes how much of it is dormant, the next question is how to reclaim it.
The Feldenkrais method provides tools which use the language of movement to do just this. Dr. Feldenkrais created thousands of movement lessons which address every movement needed to live and to play. As a result, injuries are prevented and alleviated and one discovers new options of sounds which in turns enrich the musical imagination.
After many years of working with musicians and realizing how little information and help they get from their own body, I developed a way, which I call “Embodied Music”, to apply the Feldenkrais Method to musicians.
I use four formats in teaching:
1. Group movement lessons
2. Private sessions where I work with my hands, addressing specific problems of a student, sometimes with and sometimes without the instrument.
3. Master Classes
4. Workshops, combining all formats.
In the next installment, I will explain the tools and the theory used to help you express your music without hurting yourself. In the last installment I will direct you through a series of movements so you can experience the efficacy of this Method.
A wheel needs a central point of contact, an axis, in order to turn and spin. One never loses touch with one’s central point – the spine – as one moves through life. But society today has lost that core. It has no idea where it is going.
- Svami Purna
When I was well into my studies as a young cellist, I became fascinated with the question: How does one raise the arms to play? My naive mind wondered: is there a wrong way and a right way, and how does one distinguish between the two? I read a great many books on cello technique and for years I asked this question of my teachers. It seemed to me to be a very important gesture that most people took for granted, and my teachers, with one exception, never discussed it, except very generally to illustrate: ‘do it like this’. But where did ‘this’ originate? Where did the energy come from and how was it to be directed in this fundamental act of preparing to play?
When I began training as a teacher of the Alexander Technique, I came face to face with a basic tenet of the work: the act of raising the arms is central to all one’s activities and depends upon the entire coordination of the body, not only the arms. I felt as if I had finally come home.
I mentioned in the last installment the following quotations from F.M. Alexander:
Stiffened necks and arms of people of today are outward signs of the imperfect development and lack of coordination of the muscular system of the back and spine.
Arms and necks are stiffened in performing actions which properly call for the perfect coordination of the muscular mechanisms of the back.
To understand the meaning of these words, we are asked to take a step back—to what precedes the raising of the arms—and that means coming into quiet and taking stock of the state of one’s head/neck and back relationship, what Alexander called the ‘Primary Control’. If the neck is tight, if the head is not balancing freely on top of the spine, if the back is either rigid or collapsed, what hope have we of raising the arms and using them freely in whatever we do, let alone playing the cello?
Let’s begin by looking at the connection of the arms to the source of their power, the back and yes, the legs too! The moment you think of reaching up or out with the arm, the equilibrium reactions are stimulated. Information is sent to the calf, hamstring, and abdominal muscles to organize the anti-gravity response to start working. The long muscles of the back (the extensors) engage to stabilize the trunk and to deliver the power to the limbs. So both the trunk and pelvis are involved in the preparation for using the arms freely. If you cannot use trunk and pelvis properly, you cannot use the arms well.
In the work of the Alexander Technique, the head/neck/back relationship is primary and the limbs are secondary; the former determines the efficacy of the latter. We cultivate the power of the back in order to use the limbs freely. Once the back is in its place, what we call back and up, rather than pushing or collapsing forward and downward, then we turn our attention to how the arms can be raised. To learn to keep the mind focused on what is primary when raising the arms is a huge challenge for the brain.
Amongst musicians, the arm joint (I refer here to the ‘ball and socket joint’–the ball of the upper arm bone which sits in the socket formed by the juncture of the collar bone and the shoulder blade), is one of the most misunderstood parts of the body. When I ask my students where they think their arm joint is, they usually point to a non-existent joint in the crease of their sleeve top. When I point to the place along the outer arm, indicating that this joint actually lies about 1 ½ inches down from the shoulder girdle, they are invariably surprised.
Tightening the neck, pushing forward or collapsing the lower back and raising the shoulder girdle to raise the arm are three of the most common faults, even amongst professional musicians and teachers of other instruments. To learn to use what Alexander called the ‘lifter muscles’—the latissimus dorsi or the large long muscles that wrap along each side of the back—and to allow the arm to rotate in the socket by sending the elbow away from the shoulder, rather than contracting it inward, contributes to a free, floating arm which is light, very mobile and which can transmit the power of the back, the primary energy supplier.
It can take quite a revision of our thinking to acknowledge that the arms don’t make the effort; they simply transmit the power supplied by the back. They are the agents of the spine and must be quiet and ‘empty’ in order to receive this power. Furthermore, when they are well-supported by the huge, long muscles of the back, they are not heavy, nor do they ever need to be made heavy to produce sound. Making the arms feel heavy to relax them is one of the great myths of cello playing and usually involves collapse of the spinal column, or what we call in Alexander work ‘pulling down’.
My Alexander teacher often quotes his great teacher’s saying: ‘Let the spine light up the fingertips.’ The energy must flow like water from the source to the destination, in our case, the string.
Although the collection of excerpts on an audition repertoire list may seem arbitrary, each one has a purpose: giving the audition candidate an opportunity to demonstrate certain things about his or her playing and artistry. Audition success involves showing a command of certain basic elements—such as rhythm, dynamics, intonation and articulations—as well as conveying a nuanced understanding of the music and the composer. A well crafted audition list will include excerpts that emphasize each of these elements, and a candidate’s ability to demonstrate control and understanding of them will determine his or her chance for success.
Let’s put these goals into concrete terms using a common cello audition excerpt as an illustration: the opening of the second movement of Brahms’ Symphony No. 2:
The bar-by-bar discussion that follows is by no means intended to imply that these are the only ways to think about this music. Rather, it is to illustrate one type and level of thinking that can lead to a successful audition performance. Ultimately, each of us should form our own ideas through exploration, with small details being carefully considered and then absorbed into the larger picture. Some of the comments below have to do with making what is printed on the page clearly audible to the listener, which sometimes is no small task. Other comments involve thinking beyond what is printed.
Some preliminary statements about this excerpt:
What are the top priorities here? Beautiful and nuanced sound, seamless legato, and elegant phrasing.
If you aim for the right sonic and musical qualities first, the best tempo will usually find itself. Resist choosing a tempo first and then fitting the music into it. Remember that the slower the tempo gets, the more difficult it will become to play long phrases successfully.
Printed dynamics, phrasings, and other markings should be very clear to the listener, but subtly inflecting a phrase even when no dynamic is printed is not only smart for an audition, it’s good musicianship.
Although this discussion does not specifically address vibrato, it should be understood that the desirable vibrato is one that (a) doesn’t stop during finger changes and shifts and (b) can be varied to enhance your musical aims. Moments of poco (or even senza) vibrato could conceivably be used effectively in this excerpt, but these decisions must be made thoughtfully and the sounds prepared carefully. Nothing in this excerpt happens suddenly.
Bars 1 – 2
Your sound must be free and open. Make an appropriate preparatory motion to begin playing so you aren’t starting from a physically static place.
Don’t push the limits of the instrument here—for that matter, don’t ever do it. This is not the loudest you will play in this excerpt. What does poco forte mean? Define it in relation to the louder dynamics that will come later.
Should you divide the opening slurs into more than one bow stroke? The answer (both here and everywhere) depends on whether you can make a beautiful, free sound in the right dynamic without dividing the slur. If you do break the slur, do so as imperceptibly as possible. Should you start up bow or down bow? Either can work, and aurally it should make absolutely no difference.
This phrase has contour, so it must have inflection. Many players phrase away at the end of the first slur, which is nice, but then begin the second slur louder and do exactly the same thing again—even though the ending harmony is completely different the second time. How about beginning the second slur where the first leaves off and then warming into the end of the second slur, to coincide with the first B major chord of the movement?
The last beat of bar 2 must sound like a pickup (even though you must use the bow more quickly), so its relationship to the following downbeat is clear.
The exact bowing in this bar is less important than that you play the phrase, not your chosen bowing. Coupling two notes together is common. This is a good bowing if well executed, but your ears must demand that each note goes in its proper place in the phrase, with no unwanted accents or inconsistent articulations. The musical line goes down from the downbeat, so it is nice to phrase it down.
It is imperative to avoid unwanted emphases on beats 2 and 3. Playing very smoothly here ensures that you don’t upstage the swell in the next bar (which should be noticeably different from anything played so far).
There is a lot to think about in this bar. Many bowings can work. Make the swell gradual, and not to the B, which frequently gets jabbed either because it’s the highest note or because of inelegant bow use.
Give careful thought to the type of audible connection—if any—that you want between the D# and the B. Then choose your fingering based on that. Too often, a player will go with the first fingering that works and become stuck with whatever type of slide results from it.
The most sudden dynamic and color change in the entire excerpt happens in this bar. Where? On the E. I have heard many an audition candidate sit on the E with unchanging tone, then suddenly play softer on the C#. The E is the gateway from one world of sound (and the height of the swell) to another. It must begin to change right away and lead us to a completely different sound color.
Bars 6 – 7
Show beautiful soft sound and real legato. Using the A string in bar 7 is fine if it’s done in a way that doesn’t accentuate the A string’s brightness.
You must shift at some point, but downward “shmears” are seldom attractive musically. Every shift you make should be either expressive or inaudible. In these bars, go for inaudible, meaning artful use of the bow to play legato while still making allowances so shifts aren’t heard.
Bars 8 – 9
The two upward shifts take place as a part of the longest single crescendo in the excerpt, not to mention that they end on different notes. Give the feeling, as a singer would, that the second one reaches higher, taking a little more musical “effort.” As mentioned, choose your fingering carefully. Which type of shift you make (and whether you shift at all, since crossing from the D string is an option) has an enormous effect on whether you sound like you are transcending the instrument or not.
Where is the top of the crescendo? Brahms is a bit vague with his markings, but it seems to want go to the downbeat of bar 10. If you aren’t careful, the B in bar 9 gets suddenly louder, so it sounds like the phrase goal and leaves no room to continue to bar 10. Pacing this crescendo evenly for two full bars is difficult—but it’s what the composer wrote.
Bars 10 – 11
The downbeat of bar 10 may be the loudest you play in this excerpt. Thinking backward, your sound at the opening must be gauged so that it doesn’t compete with the sound you’ll use at bar 10. After such a long crescendo, the diminuendo is quite quick. How low does it go? That’s up to you, based on the surrounding musical events. Bar 11 begins with the same two notes as bar 10, but the swell is much quicker—so perhaps it doesn’t come up as high. The small swells in these bars must be interpreted in the context of the larger phrase, and all swells do not have to be created equal—even those that look the same on paper.
Bars 12 – 13
Let the sound grow freely through beat 2 of bar 12. This is not a moment for white-hot intensity—nothing in this excerpt is. Since the cellos stop being the primary voice at the “poco forte” marking in the middle of the bar, it is less than you have just been playing. Crashing down on the F# does not give the impression that you understand the changing role of the cello line in the music.
The fast notes must be heard, but they must also be smooth and not seem suddenly active so they disrupt the general sense of broadness in the music. Get started on time so you can spread the quickest notes out to their full value.
There are many possible fingerings for this passage. The most obvious fingerings all involve shifting during the fast notes. I looked for an alternative and ultimately chose a solution for myself that is a little outside-the-box: from the downbeat, 2 1 2 4 4 (on the G natural). This fingering may not work for every hand, but it does allow the shifting to be done before and after the quick notes, not in the middle. I mention this mainly to drive home the point that we will only sound our best after thinking carefully about all the fingering options for a given passage.
Bars 15 – 17
Don’t play too softly in 15, to leave room for diminuendo. Keep the espressivo quality going all the way to the end, carefully listening as you bring the last note to silence.
A few days ago I was on the Symphony Hall stage, playing Brahms’s A German Requiem in concert. While playing the second movement, I started thinking about what I was going to make for dinner the following night. The last time I cooked it, I thought, it came out a little dry. Maybe this time I should…
But wait a second, I was playing one of my favorite pieces in one of the world’s best halls, with a great orchestra and a great conductor, how could I not be completely absorbed in what I was doing? Was I the only one on stage whose mind was wandering, and if not – did anyone in the audience notice? I was aware that I was a part of a great concert, and the audience seemed to think so too. What was going on? I was playing everything just fine, but I wasn’t really there, and becoming aware of it made me feel like I’m not doing what I’m supposed to.
We try very hard to be “in the zone” when we perform, but is it really realistic to expect ourselves to always be there? In a professional setting you have to perform a lot. This year, for example, I will have played about 170 concerts with the orchestra, plus a good number of chamber music concerts. As much as I can try, it’s certain that I won’t be as involved as I’d like to in quite a few of them. So how do we as performers deal with that?
For one thing, we shouldn’t take it too hard when it happens. We all know how easy it is to start beating ourselves up for being distracted, and as a result get more and more distracted. Better to just acknowledge what’s happening without judgment and just go on.
More important is the matter of how we prepare and practice. Young cellists often practice their notes carefully, and expect the inspiration of the moment to take care of the rest. We simply cannot rely on that – we owe it to our audience to give the music the expression we want to give it whether or not we’re “feeling it” at the moment. When we practice, we should be aware of the expression we want to show in the music, and be specific about how we achieve it with our instrument. This is where technique meets musicianship and where it matters most.
So don’t worry about being out of the zone sometime, I would bet that it happens even to the best of us. But do work on making that variable matter as little as possible by knowing exactly what you want to say musically and how to make it happen technically. If anything, it will make the times when you are fully present and fully involved in what you’re doing even more satisfying and memorable.
You are a marvel. You are unique. In all the years that have passed there has never been another child like you. Your legs, your arms, your clever fingers, the way you move. You may become a Shakespeare, a Michelangelo, a Beethoven. You have the capacity for anything. Yes, you are a marvel.
- Pablo Casals
Pablo Casals, ever aware of the miracle of life and of how gesture can be informed with thought and feeling, could elicit from his cello or from his orchestra sounds that could penetrate the heart. To watch him moving his arms as he played or conducted was to witness the reaching forth from his inner being to the outer world.
Arms are conductors of the energy within. They bear the fruits of our thought in action, they take our hands to the very place we wish to touch or hold; they make it possible for the fingers to express our simplest and our deepest intentions as musicians.
Watching the arms is a clue to the state of a person’s thought—they can reveal tensions, anxieties, or emotional distress (at a time of loss, the arms and hands tell the inner story and seek out others instinctively to receive support). In a charismatic speaker or performer, the arms can act as a compass, defining the magnitude of a phrase or an idea and holding the attention of the audience through the tempo of their movement in space. The way a musician enters the stage, either swinging or holding his/her arms, ready to embrace or ready to fight—is detected at a subliminal level by the audience. As the performer warms to the audience, the arms loosen and the connection is established between player and listener. Fear contracts, fight braces, but love expands.
The first gesture we learn as players is to take hold of the instrument that fascinates us. I remember once meeting a four year old Chinese boy in Beijing who had been playing the cello less than a year. He could hardly wait for his father to remove the case from his 1/8 size cello, pulling and tugging to help; once out, he grabbed the instrument faster than a squirrel on a nut. His arms told me more than any words could that he just loved playing his cello.
Indian and Persian musicians in training must first learn what it is to touch their instrument, as touch is symbolic of the reverence and respect accorded their chosen medium of spiritual transmission. The instrument is at once inanimate and animate; its life is awakened by the touch of the musician who opens to and is touched by the divine powers expressed through the music.
Raising the arms is a simple movement, one we hardly give thought to, and yet it is the rare cellist in whom the arms and wrists are free. Just the opposite in fact. Mostly one sees arms that are doing the work of the back, trying to produce the energy needed to play. The true masters of any instrument, not only the cello, demonstrate to us that free arms are the expressive agents of the soul.
This installment therefore opens the question of how we make this fundamental gesture from which all else follows. FM Alexander noted in his writings the following words which sum up many of the problems musicians face in their work:
Stiffened necks and arms of people of today are outward signs of the imperfect development and lack of coordination of the muscular system of the back and spine.
Arms and necks are stiffened in performing actions which properly call for the perfect coordination of the muscular mechanisms of the back.
The Alexander Technique is one way of learning to acknowledge — to come to experience in our bodies — how much the arms and hands overdo. They are the slaves of an overactive and wasteful mind continually exerting too much energy in all directions.
In the teaching of the Alexander Technique, the first step is the practice of inward quietness, without which we cannot develop the sensitivity to notice how and where we are overdoing. Becoming quiet and inwardly still enables us gradually to become aware of these interferences.
My students often are surprised by the discovery that they are ‘holding onto’ their arms or legs when they had no idea they were doing so. As we ascend levels in the work, this discovery recurs to a finer and finer degree.
Musicians are generally not prepared to accept that their unproductive habits do not originate with the instrument. Their patterns of overdoing—their manner of giving attention to their work – are formed by all their activities, by the way they live, music being the claim on most of their time and energy. This ‘manner of the Use of the Self’, as FM Alexander called it, underlies all our reactions and holds the key to changing our habits at the cello. It is a long process of ‘undoing’ these ways of thinking.
Here in Part Two of my discussion on Tak-Sîm by Alireza Farhang, I am going to focus on his application on various extended cello techniques. On this topic, I found his approach to be quite fascinating and one that I am especially excited to share with everyone here in the cello community.
The piece begins with an audio trigger that I execute by pressing on a foot pedal. The trigger is a low, ambient sound that is sonically enhanced when I play a tremolo on the stick of the bow thus creating an almost a breathless quality.
Although a relatively simple technique, for this technique I would suggest using what I call a “guilt free” bow. The reason is because there is a large crescendo at the tail end of the note. This requires a great deal of bow pressure, beyond what I would feel comfortable doing on a decent bow. So what is a “guilt free” bow you ask? For me this is a bow that is not worth very much money and one that you don’t mind wacking around a bit. I have two. One is wooden that I playfully call “the club” and the other is a carbon fiber bow made in China. Both actually sound pretty good and can bounce pretty well.
At this point I would like to comment on the fact that Alireza did something that is unfortunately all too rare in the world of composition. It is true that in his quartet he asks all of us to do many things that we do not normally do. That said, he also did his homework. Alireza actually went out and got a hold of a cello and experimented to find various sounds on the instrument. So when I would say to him, “this is not playable” he would actually respond “you do it like this”. For this I have to give him a great deal of credit. Surprisingly enough, this is only the second time that i have ever had this type of experience working with a composer. And both times i have found that I have discovered new ways of creating sound. My guess is that this is probably due to the fact that a composer does not go in with a set idea of how sound is created on a cello. I would encourage all composers to try this sometime.
It is mainly near the end of the piece that Alireza unleashes his arsenal of extended cello techniques. In fact, the entire last 5 minutes or so is one big cello solo. The solo begins with a high double stop tremolo that rises up until you finally reach the bridge with your left hand. But you do not stop there! You continue tremoloing on the bridge creating a pitchless fuzz until you allow the bow to finally emerge on the far side of the bridge creating a dissonant chord. Again, you do not stop there! The tremolo continues down the cello to the point where the strings touch the tail piece. OK, now you hit a stop sign: fine tuners. So after taking a breath, you finish the phrase with a tremolo on the tail piece.
Next secton: bow the end pin. Whenever I bow the end pin I usually get a high harmonic. But as a result of his experimentation he knew a way to achieve a different sound. He asked for me to play a very low pitch which required a great deal of pressure. This is not an easy sound to make…and not very easy to control either!
And after a quick scordatura from C to B, Alireza next asks the cellist to play a tremolo between two harmonics located above the fingerboard in “rosin land”. As many of you already know, harmonics in this territory are pretty fussy. When I asked Alireza about them, he simply said, “I want the audience to feel your struggle”. Thanks, Dude.
But all of this leads to the solo’s most expressive moment. It is a melody played with left hand pizzicato meant to mimmic the sound of a setar. This melody is accompanied by sul ponticello tremolo and alternating between varied pitched and unpitched harmonics. This is a really beautiful sonic effect and a great moment in the music.
So how does a composer come to this point to ask a musician to do so much extreme extended technique. I cannot answer for all composers. But in Alirezah’s case the inspiration is actually completely musical. In his program notes, he writes: “The idea came to me in Autumn 2009 during a seminar at Columbia University”, recalls Alireza Farhang. “A young Turkish composer living in New York played a recording of some traditional Turkish music performed on a solo instrument. After the piece finished, he asked the audience to identify the instrument. The general opinion was that it could only have been a traditional Turkish instrument. This seemed right because everything about the sound, style, and intonation all sounded Turkish…nobody could guess that it was actually a cello! I then realized how the style, the intonation, the intervals, the articulations, all of the various qualities of holding a note, can change the character of an instrument and it’s identity. Thus was born Tak-Sîm.”
Not all competitions are created equal. There are good ones and bad ones, and good and bad reasons for entering. Many kids are raised to be competitive, both musically and in school. Kids can feel pressure to do competitions from parents, teachers and peers. Sometimes it is easy to fall into the trap of thinking success can only be measured by winning competitions and that a career in music and admission to a good school are impossible without numerous wins.
Competitions are good for many things, but they should not define success. They often consist of just one performance, on one particular day; success is something you achieve over many years through work and dedication. Since most competitions, at the most, will be three rounds over a short period of time, it is a mistake to believe you are successful or unsuccessful just because you won or lost. Many truly outstanding musicians have lost competitions because of a bad day, when in reality, they are better overall musicians than the winners. People shouldn’t beat themselves up over a loss, because, if you look at the big picture, it doesn’t make that much of a difference.
For me, part of the reason I enter competitions is for practice motivation. When preparing for a competition, I find I am able to focus and learn things faster. Like an audition, its an environment that I and many others struggle with, and so it is just good experience to perform in front of people.
I also find that sometimes the judges’ comments, whether formal or informal, help me improve my playing. Not all competitions offer this though, and when they do not make judges comments available, you just play and are sent away with no knowledge of why you lost.
Find out as much as you can about a particular competition before entering and decide whether you really think it will be a worthwhile experience. Many competitions consist of just playing and leaving, with a winner announced via email at the end of the day. It can be a very dehumanizing experience, so be prepared!
The most notable exception to this that I have taken part in was the Sphinx Competition, which was a high-quality, multi-day experience. The judges gave detailed comments and were happy to talk afterwards to the participants. There were master-classes and lectures as well. Everyone in the organization cared about not only finding a winner, but also helping and impacting the musical development of all participants in a meaningful way. I made many connections and friends during my week at Sphinx. Sphinx is an organization with a very defined mission and a model competition.
By now, I think I’ve made it clear that I don’t believe in competitions defining musical accomplishment, or in doing the ones where there isn’t something to be learned. Sure, it’s a huge ego boost to win and losing can sometimes lead to a lot of productive soul searching, but its not for everyone, they also have the potential to be really negative, and there are plenty of other ways to succeed in the field of music. But you can learn and grow from the good ones, so all students should probably do a few just for the experience of playing in a stressful, critical environment.
Competitions can be a tool to focus and improve your playing, but they should not be used to define your success or failure.